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entrypoint 0.1.5

Company: Conrad Irwin
Date Added: October 25, 2013  |  Visits: 237


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A decorator to interact with argparse based on function signature.<br /><br />This is a decorator library that helps one to write small scripts in Python.<br /><br />There are three main features that it provides:<br /><br /> * Automatically running a function when a script is called directly, but<br /> not when it is included as a module.<br /><br /> * Automatically generating argument parsers from function signatures and<br /> docstrings<br /><br /> * Automatically opening and closing files (with a codec or as binary) when<br /> a function is called and returns.<br /><br />The raison d'?*?*tre of this library is to be convenient, and it makes some<br />sacrifices in other areas. Notably there are some stringent conditions on<br />the order of application of decorators.<br /><br />For further information, see the explanations below, and the docstrings of the<br />functions. To report errors, request features, or submit patches, please email<br /><br /><br /><br />I've tried to comment-out sections of the documentation that are less relevant<br />to people trying to simply use the library. They contain background information<br />or extra interfaces for re-using components.<br /><br />1) Automatically running a function when the library has been called directly.<br /> This is conventionally done in Python using:<br /><br /> >>> def main():<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> >>> if __name__ == '__main__':<br /> ... main();<br /><br /> And can be re-written to<br /><br /> >>> @autorun<br /> ... def main():<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> WARNING: This will not work as expected unless it is the "outermost"<br /> decorator, i.e. the decorator that is listed first in the file and<br /> applied last to the function. If you only have one decorator, that<br /> should be fine - and that's why the library also provides @entrypoint,<br /> @entrywithfile and @runwithfile (see table below) so that you only<br /> need one decorator.<br /><br /> # Specifically, this decorator will call the function as part of the<br /> # process of decorating. Thus any decorators that are applied after<br /> # this one will not have been applied in the case the function is<br /> # called later.<br /><br /> # autorun can also be used as a standalone function, which is necessary if<br /> # you would like to use this functionality as part of another library.<br /> # In such a case you need to pass it a second parameter indicating how far<br /> # many levels above in the stack frame within autorun you would expect for<br /> # __name__ to equal '__main__'.<br /><br /> # >>> def autorunwithone(func):<br /> # ... autorun(lambda: func(1), 2)<br /> # >>> @autorunwithone<br /> # ... def puts(y):<br /> # ... print y<br /><br /><br /><br />2) Automatically opening and closing files with the appropriate encoding.<br /><br /> This is conventionally done using:<br /><br /> >>> from __future__ import with_statement<br /> >>> def main(filename):<br /> ... with, 'r', 'utf-8') as openfile:<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> And can be re-written to<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('r')<br /> ... def main(openfile):<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> It is possible to pass a codec's name as the first positional argument<br /> (or as __encoding) to @withfile. The default encoding is stored in<br /> entrypoint.ENCODING and is set to 'utf-8'.<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('utf-16', 'w')<br /> ... def main(openfile):<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> Or to open files in "binary" mode, with no codec, just suffix the<br /> spec with a 'b':<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('rb', 'a')<br /> ... def main(binaryfile, logfile):<br /> ... print >>logfile, process(<br /><br /> WARNING: Default arguments to functions are opened and closed on each entry<br /> to that function, when a function will be called more than once used 'a'<br /> instead of 'w' so that later calls don't overwrite the contents.<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('r', 'a')<br /> ... def main(readfile, log='/tmp/python.log'):<br /> ... log.write("Reading %s" %<br /><br /> For clarity, it is possible to give keyword arguments to @withfile, and<br /> it is necessary to do so if you wish to open all the arguments provided to<br /> the function's *args or **kwargs:<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('w', args='r', stderr='a')<br /> ... def main(catfile, *args, **kwargs):<br /> ... if args:<br /> ... catfile.write("n".join( for arg in args))<br /> ... elif 'stderr' in kwargs:<br /> ... print >>kwargs['stderr'], "Nothing to cat"<br /><br /> Finally, following the convention of many command line tools, the special<br /> filename '-' is used to refer to sys.stdin for reading, and sys.stdout for<br /> writing and appending. Again this can be a default parameter or passed in<br /> by the caller:<br /><br /> >>> @withfile('r', 'w')<br /> ... def main(input, output='-'):<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> WARNING: The files are opened on entry to the function, not when you need them,<br /> if you open a file for writing, it will be created on disk, even if you don't<br /> write anything to it.<br /><br />3) Automatically parsing command-line arguments from a function's signature,<br /> and, if possible, from its doc-string.<br /><br /> Internally, this uses the argparse module, but removes the tedious syntax<br /> needed to get the most simple arguments parsed.<br /><br /> At its most basic, it simply converts a function that takes several<br /> positional arguments (**kwargs is not supported) into a function that takes<br /> an optional array of arguments, and defaults to sys.argv[1:]<br /><br /> >>> @acceptsargv<br /> ... def main(arg1, arg2):<br /> ... pass<br /> ...<br /> ... main()<br /> ... main(sys.argv[1:])<br /> ... main(['arg1', 'arg2'])<br /><br /> This can be coupled with the other magic above, so that the function is<br /> called automatically when it is defined:<br /><br /> >>> sys.argv[1:] = ['arg1', 'arg2']<br /> >>> @entrypoint<br /> ... def main(arg1, arg2)<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> The argument parser will abort the program if the arguments don't match, and<br /> print a usage message. More detail can be found by passing -h or --help at<br /> the command line as is normal.<br /><br /> >>> @entrypoint<br /> ... def main(arg1, arg2):<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> usage: [-h] arg1 arg2<br /> : error: too few arguments<br /><br /> In addition to compulsary, positional, arguments as demonstrate above it is<br /> possible to add flag arguments. Flag arguments are signified by providing a<br /> default value for the parameter, of the same type as you wish the user to<br /> input. Positional arguments, and flags with a default value of None are<br /> always decoded as unicode strings. If the type conversion fails, it is<br /> presented to the user as an error.<br /><br /> >>> @entrypoint<br /> ... def main(filename, priority=1):<br /> ... assert isinstance(priority, int)<br /><br /> usage: [-h] [--priority PRIORITY] filename<br /><br /> If the default value is True or False, the flag will be treated as a toggle<br /> to flip that value:<br /><br /> >>> @entrypoint<br /> ... def main(filename, verbose=False):<br /> ... if verbose:<br /> ... print filename<br /><br /> usage: [-h] [--verbose] filename<br /><br /> It is also possible to use the *args of a function:<br /><br /> >>> @entrypoint<br /> ... def main(output, *input):<br /> ... print ", ".join(filenames)<br /><br /> usage: [-h] output [input [input ...]]<br /><br /> In addition to being able to parse the arguments automatically, @acceptargv<br /> can also be used to provide user-facing documentation in the same manner as<br /> argparse. It does this by parsing the function's doc string in the following<br /> ways:<br /><br /> >>> def main(filename, flag=True, verbosity=3):<br /> ... """<br /> ... Introductory paragraph.<br /> ...<br /> ... Description and clarification of arguments.<br /> ...<br /> ... Epilogue<br /> ...<br /> ... ----<br /> ...<br /> ... Internal documentation<br /> ... """<br /> ... pass<br /><br /> All parts are optional. The introductory paragraph and the epilogue are<br /> shown before and after the summary of arguments generated by argparse. The<br /> internal documentation (below the ----) is not displayed at all.<br /><br /> <argument> = <clarification>:<description><br /> <clarification> = [-<letter>[,] ] --<flagname> [=<varname>]<br /> = <argname> [/<displayname>]<br /><br /> The description can span multiple lines, and will be re-formed when<br /> displayed.<br /><br /> In the first case, the -<letter> gives a one-letter/number abbreviation for setting<br /> the flag:<br /><br /> >>> def main(flag=True):<br /> ... """<br /> ... -f --flag: Set the flag<br /> ... """<br /><br /> <argname>, <flagname>, <varname>, and <displayname> are limited to<br /> [a-zA-Z][a-zA-Z0-9_-]*<br /><br /> The flagname and the argname should match the actual name used in the<br /> function argument definition, while the displayname and varname are simply<br /> for displaying to the user.<br /><br /> Finally, any function that is wrapped in this manner can throw an<br /> entrypoint.UsageError, the first parameter of which will be displayed to<br /> the user as an error.<br /><br />Several combinations are available as pre-defined decorators:<br /><br /> Run Signature Open<br /> Automatically Parser Files<br /><br /> @autorun X<br /><br /> @entrypoint X X<br /><br /> @entrywithfile X X X*<br /><br /> @runwithfile X X<br /><br /> @withfile X<br /><br /> @withuserfile X*<br /><br /> @acceptargv X<br /><br />* Denotes that FileUsageErrors will be thrown instead of IOErrors to provide more<br /> user-friendly error reporting<br /><br />A set of tests can be run by calling "python"<br /><br />#md5=cd5a0df713ab5ba3a85b10116765697d<br />#md5=2bc8862281e519803a51abc4c9ac4f71

Requirements: No special requirements
Platforms: *nix, Linux
Keyword: Arguments Automatically Autorun Called Decorator Default Documentation Entrypoint Filename Files Function Gtgtgt Input Library Mainfilename Print Quotquotquot Usage
Users rating: 0/10

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